Many local libraries have machines that allow you to download a file, or will do it for you.
In case you do not have a Windows machine, here is a method for creating a usable win10 installation on a USB stick: How to make Windows 10 USB install media in Linux
I used my Framework laptop running Linux to do this. The compression of the win file does take some time, but it was successful whereas simply copying the ISO bytes to the USB stick resulted in the original symptom described at the top of this post.
The instructions in the above post worked for me as well. I didn’t have a USB stick handy, but it actually worked fine doing the entire thing off of a micro SD card using the micro SD card module.
Just to add an alternate solution to this issue, the woeusb library worked great for me to set up my win10 USB with my downloaded ISO, while manual set up did not.